Cold trauma - damage to body tissues due to low ambient temperatures. The protruding parts of the body are more often affected: fingers, ears, chin, nose. Such injuries are often combined with general hypothermia of the body and require urgent assistance.
Acute and chronic types of cold injuries - the degree of general frostbite
There are several different classifications of cold injuries, depending on the etiology, the depth of tissue damage, the development of the pathological process and other factors.
Emergency help with frostbite of any severity is necessary to prevent the progression of pathological processes.
Cold injuries are acute and chronic:
- Acute cold damage
There are freezing( general hypothermia) when internal organs and body systems of are damaged, and frostbite or frostbite( local hypothermia) - development of necrosis of tissues with secondary changes.
- Chronic cold lesions
Distinguish between cold neuroasculitis and cooling or reforestation.
General supercooling has three degrees of severity:
- Light degree
Characterized by pallor and cyanosis of the skin, chills, difficulty in speaking. Blood pressure is slightly increased or normal, the heartbeat slows to 60 beats per minute. Local damage of I-II degree is possible.
- Medium degree
Skin pale, sometimes with a marble color, blood pressure slightly reduced, pulse weak filling, reduced to 50 beats per minute. Body temperature reduced to 32 ° C.Breathing shallow, rare, marked by drowsiness, impaired consciousness. Possible frostbites I-IV degree.
Consciousness is absent, cramps are possible. The body temperature is below 31 ° C, the pulse is low, 30-40 beats per minute, the blood pressure is sharply reduced. Breathing is weak, superficial, 3-4 times per minute. There are heavy and numerous frostbites.
Types of frostbites on the mechanism of the development of cold trauma
Frostbite can occur:
- From exposure to cold air , most often develops at a temperature below -10 ° C and high humidity. Affected fingers of feet and hands, protruding parts of the face( nose, ears, cheeks, chin).
- From contact with objects of external environment with low temperature ( up to -40 ° C and below) - contact frostbites. They differ by a sharp decrease in temperature in the tissues.
Degree of frostbite on the depth of tissue damage
Depending on the depth of tissue damage, distinguish:
- I category frostbite
Develops after a short exposure to cold. It is characterized by pricking the affected area, then numbness. Skin pale with marble color, after warming develops edema, the skin turns red, scaly is observed.
- II-degree frostbite
Appears with prolonged exposure to cold, partial occurs, skin cell death occurs before the growth layer. The formation of blisters with transparent contents in the first days after injury is a distinctive sign of frostbite of the second degree. Later, after warming, there are itching, burning, prolonged pain.
- Frostbite of the third degree
Develops after a long period of exposure to low temperatures, necrosis of all layers of the skin occurs. Bubbles with hemorrhagic contents form. In the future, granulation and scars appear on the damaged areas. After warming - intense prolonged pain.
- Frostbite IV degree
There is damage to the skin and muscle tissue, bone tissue is often affected. Bubbles are absent, after warming develops a strong edema.