Fundamentals of nutrition in figures

BJU: Healthy Nutrition Standards

In seeking accurate information about the amount of proteins, fats and carbohydrates needed to lose weight or to gain muscle mass, people face a lot of opposing opinions. Many sites offer calculators of calories, completely without explaining how the figures are calculated.

The real situation is that universal norms of nutrition simply do not exist - it all depends on the person, the level of his activity, the type of build and the associated metabolic rate. In addition, the best way to work is a diet on which a person can stay longer.

What are calories and how to correctly calculate them? Are there programs for determining the composition and caloric content of products?

Daily carbohydrate norm

Despite the fact that a carbohydrate diet and a strict restriction of carbohydrates in the diet is an effective way to quickly lose weight and lose weight, you can not consider such dietary regimens to be the norm. It is important not just to give up carbohydrates, but to be able to divide them into "bad" and "good."

Carbohydrates with a high glycemic index( sugar, white flour and other "empty calories") lead to a set of excess fat - in contrast to carbohydrates with low GI( various cereals and vegetables).Among other things, useful sources of carbohydrates contain fiber, helping to lose weight faster.

Daily protein norm

The opinion that protein should be the main diet for muscle growth is erroneous - increased caloric intake and a sufficient number of correct carbohydrates is much more important for gaining weight. The latest recommendations suggest a modest 1.5-2.5 grams of protein per kilogram of dry body weight.

However, despite the fact that exceeding these protein intake rates does not lead to an additional effect of muscle growth, it can be useful for losing weight - in contrast to the calories of carbohydrates and fats, the body is much more difficult to convert the calories of proteins into fat stores.

Daily Fat Rate

Fats are the most important element of nutrition, without which normal metabolism is impossible. This is harmful as their overabundance in the diet, leading to a set of excess weight, and a deficiency that reduces the production of hormones and immunity. Of particular importance are Omega-3 fatty acids.

The most healthy and stable weight regimens( traditional Paleo- and Mediterranean diets) imply a proportion of fat in the diet in the amount of 35-50% of all calories. However, the source of these fats should be more vegetable oils, rather than animal fats.

Determination of calorie norms

On the one hand, the determination of the calorie requirement is the basis of diet for weight loss or for muscle mass gain. On the other hand, the figure calculated by the formula will be very approximate - any method of mathematical calculation of the daily energy norm will give an error of 300-500 kcal.

The daily requirement for calories always varies, as the body adjusts to external factors, slowing or speeding up the metabolism. In most cases, to determine the approximate calorie rate, you can multiply the body weight in kilograms by a factor of 35( for example, 2625 kcal for 75 kg).

How to quickly remove subcutaneous fat from the abdomen - the strategy of fat burning exercises and recommendations for nutrition.

BIO table: Slimming norms

Daily slimming norms Percentage of Calculation for a male weighing 75 kg and 20% fat
Calories Minus 20% of the norm 2000 kcal
Proteins 25-35% 125 - 175 g /500-700 kcal
Fats 20-40% 45 - 90 g / 400 - 800 kcal
Carbohydrates 25-50% 125 - 250 g / 500 - 1000 kcal

For losing weight, you need to reduce the daily caloric value by about 15-20%.Recall that the calorie rate is calculated by the dry weight of the body, without taking into account the fat mass. The proportion of fats in the diet - 20-40% of all calories, it is better to give preference to vegetable, rather than animal fats.

The recommended amount of carbohydrates depends on the type of physique. Endomorphs with a large bone for weight loss need a minimum of carbohydrates with a low glycemic index, while ectomorphs with a fast metabolism can eat more carbohydrates, spending energy on fat-burning exercises.

BZU table: Norms for weight gain

Daily set values ​​for muscle set Percentage of Calculation for a male weighing 70 kg and 10% fat
Calories Plus 20% to normal 3000 kcal
Proteins 20-25% 150 - 190g / 600 - 750 kcal
Fats 30-35% 100 - 115 g / 900 - 1050 kcal
Carbohydrates 50-60% 375 - 450 g / 1500 - 1800 kcal

For the recruitment of muscle mass, the amount of calories consumed must beincreased by 15-20%.Carbohydrates should be consumed at the maximum limit of the norm, however, proteins and fats - in a moderate amount( otherwise the body can reduce the production of testosterone).

The key moment is the time of nutrients intake - a significant part of carbohydrates should be eaten during the "carbohydrate window"( about 2-3 hours after strength training).In this case, the body will store carbohydrates in the form of glycogen in muscles, and not in fat stores.

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The daily requirement for proteins, fats and carbohydrates varies both from the person's goals and from the type of his physique. Endomorphs with slow metabolism need less carbohydrates, while ectomorphs and mesomorphs are more effective not to cut down on nutrition, but spend energy on training.